Saturday Jun 03, 2017

Triphasic Training Spring Model Tissue Concepts

This Explains the Tissue part of the Training Process 

Triphasic Training Spring Model Tissue Concepts

Tuesday Nov 15, 2016

RPR Breathing Reset - The Benefits and Immediate Changes in Athletes

RPR Breathing Reset - Reflexive Performance Reset Effects Part 1

RPR Breathing Reset - Reflexive Performance Reset Effects Part 2

RPR Breathing Reset Reflexive Performance Reset Effects Part 3

RPR Breathing Reset - Reflexive Performance Reset Effects Part 4

For More information Got to

Monday Oct 31, 2016

Tuesday Sep 13, 2016

Crazy Results With RPR System in Repeated Sprint Athlete

Stephen Volek, M.S., CSCS, Assistant Director of Strength and Conditioning at Yale University has been using RPR™ with his athletes and tracking the results. Like everyone else who has been using this system, he is seeing major changes in the way athletes feel and their performance.

Below is the measurements he took on two athletes for their heart rate (HR) and Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) before, during and after running 10 reps of the200-yardd shuttle test.

This is not a 4 month training change as you would expect, it is a 6 day change that came from utilizing pre-lift breathing exercises and breathing resets that are part of the RPR™ system

The original test date was 9/3/16 and the re-test date was 9/9/16, 6 days later. We know that RPR™ results are sometimes too huge to believe, so here is some hard data that shows objectively the changes that the athlete made. We know a lot of strength and conditioning professionals that do not see these types of changes throughout an entire off-season, no less 6 days.

Athlete 1 – Pre-Test, 9/3/16

Athlete 1 – Post-Test, 9/9/16

Major Differences/ Key Points  with Athlete 1

  1. The Change is in 6 Days

  2. 1st Test-83% of the test was completed in the first 2 HR Zones, 6 Days Later 30% of Test was completed in the first 2 Hr Zones

  3. Notice EPOC Score

Athlete 2 – Pre-Test, 9/3/16

Athlete 2 – Post-Test, 9/9/16

Major Differences/ Key Points  with Athlete 1

1) The Change is in 6 Days

2) 1st Test-91% of the test was completed in the first 2 HR Zones, 6 Days Later 48% of Test was completed in the first 2 Hr Zones

3) Notice EPOC Score

4) Notice the Time Spent in bottom 3 heart rate zones in first test was 10%, the second was 54%.

Whether you start implementing RPR™ now or in a few years, when all your competition is beating you because they are using it, does not concern us. What does concern us is that we are letting everyone know how powerful this tool is for strength and conditioning coaches and whoever decides to adapt early and gain the advantage, that is up to them.

Not only does RPR™ Give the athlete ability to Reproduce effort in sports and training to provide high quality training. ?But it also provides resiliency in long term stress management for example during an entire season.

Monday Jul 18, 2016

How Dave Tate Is Setting 90-Pound PRs

Article Wrote by JL Holdsworth for elite fitness after attending Seminar

Next Seminar in Columbus OH July 30th and 31st

As I waited for my flight home, I sat in the airport with my mind completely blown. I spoke to my wife to tell her about my amazing experience and she asked why I sounded so different. I didn’t think I was any different, but even my staff said they knew something had changed when I spoke with them earlier in the day. Now, a month removed from the certification, I know what it was. I finally had a system to test and fix all the physical issues I had ever seen, and man, it feels amazing.

As I waited for my plane, my mind raced at all the issues I had seen over the years and how I could have possibly helped so many people with what I now knew. I needed a subject to test this new found knowledge on. Naturally, the person I know with more issues than anyone got my first text.

Article On elitefts

Tuesday Jul 12, 2016

Watch on-line the Central Virginia Sport Performance Seminar with 8 World Class Speakers

Can’t watch live on that date - watch anytime later, full access. 

This year The Central Virginia Sports Performance Seminar is Friday, July 15th and Saturday, July 16th in Richmond, Virginia.  The event will have eight world class speakers including Buddy Morris, Randy Ballard, Derek Hansen, Carl Valle, Bob Alejo, Mike Curtis, Sam Coad, and Henk Kraaijenhof.  There is always the option to attend any continuing education event of your choosing, but what they offer with CVASPS is unique.  For just $200 you can catch each of those eight presenters from anywhere with an internet connection on your laptop, PC, smart phone, or tablet.  Think you will miss one or two, or even all of them?  Well, no big deal!  You’ll get all the lectures to download once the editing process is complete, which usually only takes them two weeks.  So, you can catch them all live July 15th and 16th, or you can catch up with what you missed somewhere around the end of the month, all of this for just $200.  Jump on this offer quick, because once The Seminar starts Friday, the button gets turned off and the deal goes dead, so don’t miss out and order yours today!​  Click the link below today!

Saturday May 28, 2016

The Physiological Basis for Tapering in Endurance, Strength, and Power Athletes


: Taper, or reduced-volume training, improves competition performance across a broad spectrum of exercise modes and populations. This article aims to highlight the physiological mechanisms, namely in skeletal muscle, by which taper improves performance and provide a practical literature-based rationale for implementing taper in varied athletic disciplines. Special attention will be paid to strength- and power-oriented athletes as taper is under-studied and often overlooked in these populations. Tapering can best be summarized by the adage “less is more” because maintained intensity and reduced volume prior to competition yields significant performance benefits.


taper; reduced-volume training; periodization; skeletal muscle; fiber type

Full article Here 

Thursday May 12, 2016 Clinic with Douglas Heel

“The most advanced Performance method I have ever seen that happens in minutes and not weeks and months to see results.” Cal Dietz

"I wasn't sure if it would live up to the "hype" but it certainly did, and more!"
Christie Rourke, Sports Therapist

I can definitely can see the benefits of the technique, and it does all make sense when applied to injuries and improving sports techniques."
Anicka Graczyk, Sports Rehabilitator

In the News

3 Reasons Why Activation is a Game-Changer

You Only Know What You Know

Abdominal Sport Activation

Quad sport activation

Sign up For Clinic in Minneapolis

Sunday Apr 24, 2016

Article Explaining Importance of Eccentric Training for Injury

Although the literature shows a strong relationship between athletic activities, RFD, acceleration, and concentric based movements, the underlying factor associated with injury is often ignored. Research suggests that injuries are typically correlated with eccentric muscle actions. The premise of this article is to bring awareness to the rate of accepting forces rapidly for injury prevention.

Download Article here

Thursday Mar 31, 2016

A European Vision of Innovative Speed Concepts for Speed and Power Training for Explosive Athletes

Speed and Power Training for Explosive Athletes- A European Vision and Innovative concepts, in theory, and practice

A One day Clinic (July 22nd, 2016) put on by the Triphasic Training Institute with would famous Speed coach
Henk Kraaijenhof.

Held In Minneapolis, Minnesota

9:00 to 5:00

Pre-Sale of 100 dollars lasts for 1 Month

Topics Henk Will Lecture on include

Fiber-type-specific strength training

Explosive strength training

Speed is all we need.

Eccentric training: how to do that right?

Henk Kraaijenhof, born in 1955, has been working in the field of elite sports for more than 40 years as a coach, consultant, researcher, lecturer, and author. Starting as a coach in track and field, he worked with the fastest sprinters in the world, and gradually his knowledge and experience in elite performance were requested in other sports as well. He worked as National Coach for the Dutch Track and Field Federation ( 1981-1986) and as Director of Coaching for the Oman Athletic Federation (1990-1992) *, strength coach for the Dutch Men’s Olympic Volleyball team and the Dutch Men’s Field Hockey Team. He was an international consultant with: • Juventus Soccer Club Torino, • English, Irish and Welsh Rugby Unions, • Vancouver Canucks (ice hockey) • Oman Sailing Federation • Cervelo Test team (professional road cycling) and many other sports and organizations (details can be found below). He firmly believes that research, coaching and education go hand in hand and that a state-of-the-art training for coaches is critical for the development of any sport. So far he wrote more than 200 articles and four books about a wide range of subjects (details below) He lectures all over the world for all levels of coaches from beginners to the elite coaches, but also on scientific congresses (details below, and some examples of his lectures and articles attached). Henk is considered a true innovator and his training concepts are firmly based on scientific research. In the field of investigation, he cooperated with several international sports scientists (details below). At present, he is engaged by the Dutch Olympic Committee as a mentor for the Master Coach program. The Master Coach program is an ongoing National Coaches’ Education program for which national and talent coaches are invited to attend. *Note: while working in Oman as a Director of Coaching, he had the pleasure of visiting Beijing during the Asian Games in 1990 where his athlete Mohammed Al Malki won the gold medal in the 400 meter in Track and Field.

Wednesday Mar 23, 2016

Rate of Force Development: Physiological and Methodological Considerations

Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50–75 ms), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation.

Full Article Below

Sunday Mar 13, 2016


Two Day Triphasic Training and More Event

12 Plus hours of lecturing - April 16th and 17th

Topics that will be covered will include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • The science behind Triphasic 
  • Advancement of Functional Reserves in Athletes
  • Programming for athletes
  • weekly, monthly and yearly Integration 
  • daily programming concepts
  • GPP models and concepts for repeated sprinting sports
  • advanced Triphasic methods
  • soft tissue work for joint-specific performance
  • including methods that haven't been released yet

Also other methods that haven't been released yet!!

Friday Mar 11, 2016

The Flywheel Leg-Curl Machine Offering Eccentric Overload for Hamstring Development

Highlighted article

 REVIEW: The Flywheel Leg-Curl Machine: Offering Eccentric Overload for Hamstring Development


Researchers took 20 male soccer players with previous training experience (half had flywheel experience and half did not) and reported kinetic, kinematic, and EMG data during two conditions of flywheel leg curls.  One condition used two flywheels to create a higher moment of inertia while the other condition only used one flywheel.  The protocol called for the use of the flywheel to create an eccentric overload by instructing participants to maximally accelerate the flywheel(s) through the entire concentric range of motion and then to decelerate the flywheel during only the second half of the eccentric contraction.  In this way, an eccentric overload was created in both conditions.

Key Results:

Peak forces were higher in the two flywheels (greater inertial) condition

Peak velocities were higher in the one flywheel (lesser inertial) condition

Subjects familiar with the flywheel training did a better job of applying large eccentric forces later in the eccentric contraction.  This suggests that there may be some sort of learning period when teaching people to use a flywheel to create an eccentric overload.

EMG activity of the hamstrings showed greater activity during flywheel exercise than in maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

The biceps femoris showed a higher eccentric: concentric EMG ration than did the semitendinosus, especially in the experienced flywheel users, suggesting that the biceps femoris may have a larger role than the semitendinosus during an eccentric contraction of the hamstring.

Review complete By JD Melhorn 

Saturday Feb 27, 2016

Division 1 Female Soccer Program using Triphasic Plan

The following is Pro Agility Testing Results from Women Soccer D1 Program that haven't reached the peaking and speed Phase of the program. 

Start of Triphasic At Start of Concentric  Decreased Speed
Athlete 1 4.76 4.36 -0.4
Athlete 2 4.65
Athlete 3 4.8 4.44 -0.36
Athlete 4 4.74 4.39 -0.35
Athlete 5 4.66 4.43 -0.23
Athlete 6 4.7
Athlete 7 4.78 4.62 -0.16
Athlete 8 4.72
Athlete 9 4.65 4.29 -0.36
Athlete 10 4.71
Athlete 11 4.43 4.31 -0.12
Athlete 12 4.69
Athlete 13 4.48 4.29 -0.19
Athlete 14 4.47 4.32 -0.15
Athlete 15 4.71 4.46 -0.25
Athlete 16 4.91 4.74 -0.17
Athlete 17 4.68 4.46 -0.22
Athlete 18 4.68 4.46 -0.22
Athlete 19 4.46 4.44 -0.02
Athlete 20 4.76 4.48 -0.28

Friday Feb 26, 2016

OC Training and Partials

Oscillatory (OC) training (Ex. Dumbbell Bench Press Oscillatory )is implemented throughout the Triphasic Training Method. However, based on questions received through email, this training strategy is one of the least understood in regards to its use within a program model. To the untrained eye, these brief, 3-4 inch movements applied with well-trained athletes, can appear as gimmicky and useless, this could not be further from the truth. In all reality the OC methods utilized are able to improve strength within specific movement ranges, increase motor learning of skills, lead to further adaptations in the three muscle actions required in all dynamic movements, while also training specific joint ranges of motion required in the sport being trained for. The reasoning, as well as the specific implementation strategies, including both the execution and timing, OC will be covered to a great extent within this piece.

OC training methods involve a rapid “push-pull” motion in an attempt to maximize the ability of an athlete to reverse the muscle action phase at a high-velocity. In Russia there was originally a 5 level organizational system based on the ability of an athlete. Level 1 was a beginner while level 5 represented the elite athlete, the athlete that is viewed as the best in their respective sport. It is shown in Russian literature that the separation between a level 4, or advanced athlete, and a level 5, or truly elite athlete is not the ability to contract their muscles at a high rate (although this is a requirement of both levels), but rather the ability relax their antagonist muscles at a high-velocity. Consider level 4 to represent an average NBA athlete, highly skilled in their sport, while level 5 represents a Michael Jordan caliber athlete. Although there are many factors to consider in team sports, in the 5 level system the major difference between these athletes is to relax their antagonist (or opposing) muscles in a movement. This ability to contract and then relax muscles at the highest speeds represents the skill of rapid change of direction in the muscle required in all dynamic movements.

Figure 1: The 5 levels of sport classification and the effects of the ability to relax

the antagonist musculature during a movement

A bicep curl is a simple example that follows this contraction and relaxation idea, coined “Sherrington’s Law of Reciprocal Inhibition”. During a bicep curl (elbow flexion) it is clear and common knowledge that the bicep is shortening. However, the tricep must also allow lengthening for the elbow to complete flexion. If the tricep does not relax in a rapid enough fashion, whether that be due to a lack of strength or motor pattern, the bicep is not capable of producing the maximal level of force possible. As a high-velocity setting is experienced, such as those seen in athletic competition, the slower relaxation of the tricep will cause even greater difficulties as the speed of elbow flexion will be greatly reduced.

Although this is an over-simplified, single-joint example, the same contraction and relaxation rules apply within all movements. It is the ability to control this task of rapid contraction/relaxation in the “push-pull” mentality that separates the elite from the advanced level athletes. The OC methods are designed to increase the ability of the musculature to complete this task once an athlete has been trained appropriately.

As described above, an advanced athlete will be capable of completing these high-intensity movements in a 3-4 inch range. This is due to their increased ability to contract and relax the agonist and antagonist muscles respectively. A less advanced athlete may require a range of 5-7 inches in OC movements as they are unable to reverse the muscle action phase, or contract and relax their muscles in the maximal velocity setting. This ability is crucial for all athletic competitions requiring high-velocity movements, which occur in almost every sport.

Maximizing Strength Improvements and Intensities

At this time it is well understood that strength levels vary throughout the range of even the simplest movements. A true one rep max for any exercise simply represents the strength available at the weakest point of that movement. Every coach understands the sticking point in a bench press, or getting pinned at the bottom of a heavy squat rep. In a max out bench press, the true one rep max represents the strength of an individual at their sticking point. When using 80% of a one rep max, the athlete may experience the load as the true 80% through that sticking (weakest) point, but may then only experience that same load as 60% in the upper range. This can be seen in the bar speed change based on the range of motion being trained. It is for this reason exercises such as 2-board bench, accommodating resistance, as well as other variations of the lift, have been implemented. Simply because an athlete is much stronger in those higher positions of the bench press. If the sticking point strength is trained and improved in a movement the strength levels will be increased dramatically. This methodology can be applied to any exercise completed in a training program to improve strength levels.

OC methods can be completed in training to create high forces, intensities, and volume in the weaker positions of every exercise to improve strength. By placing athletes around their sticking point of any exercise and then forcing the creation of movement against high loads of force requires strength in these specific “weak” points, while also reducing the energy expended in the already strong points. For example, if the bench press is trained at 80% of correct one rep max an athlete will be able to complete, on average, 3 sets of 4-5 reps. However, when training with the OC method, an athlete is able to complete 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions in the weaker position. This allows less energy to be wasted in the upper ranges of movement, where the athlete is already strong and only experiences the load as only 60% of a one rep max and then forces emphasis upon the weaker position, where they must endure the true 80% strength improving load.

The intensity of an exercise is drastically increased if an athlete is required to spend a duration of time in a range of motion that is commonly considered to be weaker. Referring to the bench press example above, if the entire range of motion is utilized, the percentage of the athlete’s one rep max at each degree of movement varies to a great extent. Near extension the athlete will be considerably stronger than at the bottom position. If, instead of a full rep, an OC movement is implemented in just the weakest point the intensity is increased dramatically as the entirety of the set is spent in a difficult position. This training approach not only increases the intensity of a movement, but also leads to an adaptation of the golgi tendon organs (GTO’s).

GTO’s act as neuromuscular inhibitors and are sensitive to the forces developed within the muscle. If muscle tension increases sharply, which is common in the realm of athletics, the GTO reflex responds. This response leads to an inhibition of muscle action, ultimately decreasing tension to prevent the muscle and/or tendon from incurring damage due to the rapid, high levels of force. Every GTO is set to a specific, trainable, activation threshold. Think of this activation threshold as a governor on a truck. It is in place to ensure the safety of the structure and reduce the likelihood of injury. In general, the majority of GTO’s are pre-set to inhibit a muscle up to 40% below what that structure can actually handle. For example, if a muscle structure is capable of handling 100 lbs of exerted force, the GTO system would reach its activation threshold at 60 lbs of force. This leaves 40 lbs of untapped performance potential. Through appropriate training of the weaker points within range of motion the activation level of GTO’s can be elevated, as the body adapts and is taught to handle higher loads in specific ranges of motion. Ultimately, the ability to reduce the activation of GTO’s at high force levels will lead to increased force output from the muscle and improve strength.

Skill Learning and Tissue Tolerance

The OC training methods can be further implemented to increase the motor learning of movements as well the development of tissue tolerance. Every movement ever executed by any person is the result of a highly specific skill learning process. All skill learning is a result of the nervous system sending a signal to the utilized motor units in any movement. As an athlete completes a movement continuously, the signals sent in that pattern summate and the body “learns” to complete these skills in a highly efficient manner. Through the use of OC methods the total number of signals sent in a position are maximized in the “push-pull” execution of a movement as high-forces are applied leading to increased motor unit recruitment. By completing exercises in a condensed range of motion, tissue tolerance to high-forces is further enhanced and can lead to a reduction in injury likelihood at that tissue length. It is important that all performance coaches understand the positions in which athletes have an increased likelihood of sustaining an injury and utilize training within these ranges of motion effectively. When using OC movements, athletes not only learn skills more quickly and efficiently, but they also improve their tissue tolerance to stress in specific ranges of motion.

High-Velocity Muscle Action Training

Although the improvement of strength and tissue tolerance are important precursors in athletic development, OC training serves a much more specific purpose in a performance program designed to maximize athletic performance. Before the implementation of OC methods, every coach must understand the reasoning behind these rapid, partial exercises requiring high nervous system activity and muscle action based movement.  This method of exercise implementation is designed to enhance the training adaptations already in place and should be programmed accordingly.

Based on the understanding that the three muscle actions (eccentric, isometric, and concentric) and required in every dynamic movement completed, the importance of training each of these muscle action phases to the fullest extent becomes well understood in performance improvement. The idea of training each muscle action phase individually forms one of the pillars of Triphasic Training. The adaptations which occur within each muscle action training block are explained with the hyperlinks (Eccentric & Isometric).

When these adaptations caused by the training of the eccentric and isometric phases are realized and maximized, every athlete will have the capability to produce high force movements with increased efficiency. Although these adaptations are vital for optimal performance, the slow “controlled” training completed during both of these training phases are not specific to the high-velocity requirements in sport. As discussed in the opening paragraph of this article, truly elite level athletes (the Michael Jordan’s of the world) are capable of their feats partially based on their ability to relax their opposing muscles at a higher rate than others. This results in an extremely rapid change of direction within the individual muscle, as it transitions from eccentric through concentric actions, and vice versa. The Triphasic Training Model exploits and trains this skill specifically through the use of muscle action and OC training methods.

With the understanding that the three muscle actions not only occur, but are realized at extremely high-velocities and at specific joint angles in athletics, the OC training methods can be implemented to meet the exact requirements of any sport. The small OC training movements utilize each of the three muscle action phases with a “push-pull” mentality. By training with this “push-pull” mentality, OC movements are able to create the high-velocity, immediate muscle action changes required in virtually all athletic events. This is an important cue for all coaches to remember when implementing OC exercises, as it is easy for athletes to fall into the trap of not moving at high speeds. It is the intent, or the “push-pull” that all athletes must utilize, that creates the specific adaptations of the OC method. The difference between a triphasic trained athlete and one not trained in the muscle action phases is visible when the rapid shift from eccentric to isometric and finally to concentric muscle actions is required (force production differences between elite and advanced athletes in Figure 2 below). The OC method is designed to expose this weakness in a high-velocity setting. When previous training has been completed appropriately, the ability to reverse the direction of the training implement is maximized. Ultimately, the goal of OC methods are to train the athlete to accelerate and decelerate their body in as rapid of a fashion as possible, which is the most sport specific trainable skill. This skill enhancement results in a continued improvement of the transition from lengthening to shortening in the trained muscle and increased efficiency of the stretch-shortening cycle.

Figure 2: Difference in the ability to rapidly shift from an eccentric

to concentric muscle action, as required in athletic events

Training specificity through the use of OC methods can be enhanced through the use of specific joint angles required within sport. With the understanding that the goal of OC training is to increase the ability of the muscle to transition from a lengthening to shortening muscle action as rapidly as possible, training must be completed within the specific ranges these transitions occur in the athletic event. This specificity of movement allows for maximized transfer of training from weight room to the athletic competition. For example, in a movement such as running the top of the knee drive requires a rapid conversion from hip flexion to hip extension. As the knee approaches the maximum height of its path, the hip extensors eccentrically load. If this were not the case the leg would never slow down and reverse its direction. By training with the use of OC movements in the knee flexed position (similar to the height of knee drive in running), the ability to overcome the forces created during high-velocity hip flexion in a rapid fashion are maximized.

Peaking with OC Methods

As discussed earlier OC methods can be implemented in order to improve strength in “weak” or sticking points, leading to the overall enhancement of strength created in a movement. However, this training method can also serve to increase neural drive for rate of force development and improve the maximal velocity of actions completed. Each of these specific adaptations depends on whether the OC movement is executed in the disadvantageous (weakest) or advantageous (strongest) position. Each of these possible positions are self-explanatory based on the executed movement, with disadvantageous referring to the “weaker” position and advantageous relating to the stronger position. Referring back to the bench press example, the disadvantageous position would be located around the sticking point, where the athlete experiences the load as a higher percentage (as they are weaker). The advantageous position would be at the more extended positions as the athlete is stronger in these positions.

By training each of these positions individually, the ability to drive specific adaptations is improved to the fullest extent. Notice when describing these two positions I did not say the disadvantageous positions creates “higher stress”. It is important to understand each of these methods create high levels of high-quality stress when applied correctly. However, different adaptations are stressed individually based on the position selected. If increasing strength is the goal of the training block then the disadvantageous position would be utilized. Currently, this position is utilized within the reactive days of the strength block to maximize intensity and strength improvements. On the opposite end of the spectrum, OC methods in the advantageous position can be implemented to maximize neural drive and maximal contraction speed, as the athlete is “stronger” in this position, these would be utilized during the speed training block.

Implementation of OC Methods

The loads implemented within the OC method, as well as the positions selected, continue to follow the block training philosophy utilized within the Triphasic Training Model. The block training model implemented trains the skill of tissue tolerance (energy system and GPP training) and strength (high-loads and specific muscle action training) early in the training cycle and then transitions to skills such as power and speed (through the use of low-loads and high-velocities) as the competition date approaches.

Tissue tolerance is created through the use of 30 second OC work in the second GPP training block “GPP Block 2 30 Second Isometric”. In this phase the athlete is introduced to the OC methods through a moderate intensity and increased volume. It is through this increased volume within this block strength and skill learning within specific ranges of motion takes place, while also maximizing the metabolic requirements of this second GPP block.

In the strength and power blocks, OC movements are completed with high loads (above 80%) and are implemented on the reactive day within the training block (Day 2 of a 3-Day Training Block). OC methods should be completed within the disadvantageous, or weaker, positions to ensure the goal adaptation of improving strength is maximized within the block.

With the goal of maximizing neural drive in the speed phase the advantageous position can be utilized, however that is not always the case. It is important that all coaches understand the requirements of the sport being trained for when implementing OC methods. Taking football for example, a lineman requires much more strength (as they push against another strong force) than a wide receiver. That being said, a disadvantageous OC method would be implemented for the lineman’s training while an advantageous OC can be applied. These considerations should all play a role in the development of a program implementing OC training methods, particularly in the speed block.

Clearly OC training can be utilized within a training program for multiple reasons in order to increase the stress experienced by the body and drive specific adaptations. A performance coach must always remember there is no such thing as a perfect exercise, just perfect methods to implement an exercise. The OC method allows for a coach to determine the needs of their athletes, all based on the goal of the training block. If an athlete requires increased strength levels the disadvantageous position can be implemented. Motor learning and tissue tolerance can also be enhanced based on the use of OC training. Finally, the rapid transition from muscle lengthening to shortening can be maximized at specific joint angles required in competition when OC methods are applied appropriately. Each of these skills play a vital role in performance and must be trained appropriately.

Examples of OC exercises can be located on the exercises tab of

By Matt Van Dyke and Cal Dietz 

Wednesday Feb 24, 2016

Updated from High School Coach on Triphasic Football Manual

The following update is from a High School Coach using Triphasic Football Manual Program

We just finished our first eight-week cycle of triphasic training.  I played around with the lifting and added a contrast with tri-phasic to see what would happen.  It looked like this:

Two weeks – Eccentric

Two weeks – Isometric

Two weeks – Concentric

1 1/2  weeks – Deloading

½ week – testing

We are in the weight room Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday from 2-2:45 p.m.

Monday and Thursday – Upper Body Routine

Wednesday and Friday (Sprinters just spot on Fridays) – Lower Body Routine

Upper Body: 3x through the following

Bench Press - ECC, ISO, CON (depending on what weeks we were in) @120-125% of 1 RM…1 high-quality rep

Bench Press - 4 Reps @80-85% of 1RM…every 2 weeks increases 2.5%

Oscillating Bench Press – 8-10 Reps @ 50%

Plyo Push Ups with Band assisting – Until losing speed

Then, 3x through the following

Pull Ups – 3 reps of (ECC, ISO, CON) partner providing resistance

Pull Ups – 5-8 reps conventional strict pull ups, band assisted for throwers/OL/DL

Pull Ups – Oscillatory…until athlete can’t stay above mid-range

Pull Ups – Plyo (Reactive) Until failure

Lower Body: 3x through the following, %’s based on 1RM of Front squat

1 Leg Split Squat with back foot on bench – ECC, ISO, CON (depending on what weeks in) @120-125% of 1 RM…1 high-quality rep

Back Squat (Depth changes for each athlete depending on ability to keep core engaged and ankle rocker) – 4 reps @ 120-125% of 1 RM

Box Jumps – focus is on lower leg and feet, not getting on the box – 8-10 reps

Reactive drops – Until athlete can’t absorb correctly

We then go to track practice.  We do Pilates Mondays and Wednesdays with a professional instructor for 30 minutes.  Activate, Feet, drills (Bosch, etc.), and then either run fast or technical work etc.

Our kids saw a big jump in their strength numbers.  Their bodies are just now catching up this week and starting to see their times drop in the fly 10m and fly 30m (We run 2 fly 10m to start then change).  They still hate standing 150m….more than anything.

Bench – Average for group was 11.7% increase of 1RM in 8 weeks

Front Squat – Average for group was 20.1% increase of 1RM in 8 weeks

Pull ups – 32% increase on strict pull test (AVG. of 4.22 rep increase from previous eight weeks)

40 – about the same after eight weeks

Fly 10 m – all over the place the first month of the track, starting to get faster and more stable.

Vert Jump – slight increases for sprinter types, bigger increases for throwers

We are in the 2nd week of our next eight-week cycle.   The kids are sold and love it, can’t argue with results, especially when they are healthy and running faster too.  Good stuff…I will let you know how kids test after these eight weeks.

Friday Feb 12, 2016

World's Most Advanced Tactical Training System To Date!!

Inserts from the Triphasic Training Tactical Manual

Free Compatible Software With Tactical Manual

Triphasic Tactical Training Manual Pre-Sale

The Triphasic Tactical Training Manual was written with the explicit intent to deliver a systematic and scientifically founded approach in training methodology for athletes whose preparation does not result in wins and losses, world records, or gold medals. The idea behind the Triphasic Tactical Training Manual was originated from the individual needs of the tactical athlete and all those who put their lives at risk simply by going to work each day.

The authors of this manual have broken down the needs of every tactical athlete into six physical qualities. In order to display the physical proficiency required by the tactical athlete, each of these six qualities must be trained appropriately. What separates this training program from others is that it allows tactical athletes to continue to train with their desired methods while offering guidelines that increase the likelihood of the user to achieve optimal level responses to training and see improvements in performance.

The Weekly Sequencing Model was developed by multiple strength coaches along with an elite level military training professional for operators who based the protocol originally on The Triphasic Training System while also considering the specific needs of the tactical athlete. Programs currently being used for military training are not equipping these specialized tactical athletes appropriately, which leads to a disproportionate training of the six physical qualities necessary for optimal performance.

It was this simple point that led to the creation of The Weekly Sequencing Model. This manual is a collaboration between combat veterans who have said “we can do this better” and the training professionals who said, “we can help.” Experience has teamed up with science to present this complete, systematic training program for the tactical athlete. The Weekly Sequencing model isn’t just exercising; it is training, specifically and systematically for the tactical athlete.

This book is for the tactical athlete and those that dedicate their lives to maintaining high-performance levels to maintain the freedoms of others. In the tactical arena, less than ideal performance can have grave consequences. One step too slow, one moment too long, and the defeated does not receive a silver medal and a warm handshake.

Chapters included in this book:

1. The Tactical Athlete vs. Conventional Athletes

2. The Weekly Sequencing Model Components

3. Six Physical Qualities of Tactical Performance

4. Triphasic Review and Weekly Sequencing Model Implementation

5. Modifying The Weekly Sequencing Model

New Components included in this book:

1. The Six Physical Qualities of Tactical Performance

2. The Weekly Sequencing Model

3. The Specific Stress Model

4. The Compatible Qualities Model

5. High-Quality vs. Work Capacity Energy System Training

Thursday Jan 28, 2016

A Coaching Mission Statement

 After making some presentations, I have had some request to see my coaching mission statement. Please feel free to use or change this as you wish. It was inspired by Merlin Olson Family mission statement. 

Cal Dietz- Coaching Mission Statement

My coaching career will begin with serving humanity in the profession the Lord has chosen for me. I will coach by example with the sole purpose of giving and teaching future generations the understanding of servant leadership skills and the guidance to understand what's right and wrong in the matters of humankind. I want to create a secure culture that fosters open-mindedness, learning, laughter, and teach the strive for excellence. In this environment, all persons will admit and quickly correct mistakes with evaluation of when and why those mistakes happened. I will be a good listener with an open mind and a willingness to share life lessons with other generations. I will never stop to grow, learn and seek enlightenment. I will only celebrate with the success of others and facility their path to greatness. I will take ownership to coach for the improvement of your future leaders and their effect on the betterment of humankind.

Wednesday Jan 06, 2016

Dissertation Summary - The Effect of Fluid Periodization on Athletic Performance Outcomes

Original Article can be found here.

Dissertation Summary - The Effect of Fluid Periodization on Athletic Performance Outcomes in American Football Players

Dr. Chris Morris

- Regardless of the training stimulus applied to the athlete, it should not be assumed that adaptation occurs at the same rate between individuals. Genetic endowment may be considered the largest determinant of athletic potential

- Beyond genetics, collegiate athletes are subjected to academic loads, technical/tactical loads, psychological loads, and lifestyle loads.

- Each load represents a different stressor and its magnitude is specific to the individual.

- Given the individual variance between athletes, all loads acting on the athlete must be assessed to properly monitor the body’s ability to adapt to functional stress.

- Allostatic loads are specific to the individual and can vary at random times due to the constantly changing environment for the athlete.

- Strength and conditioning professionals can meticulously calculate training loads and present a perfect blend of training modalities to elicit specific physiological adaptations, however, too many environmental factors can disrupt the process of adaptation.

- It is simply impossible to calculate metabolic cost, or allostatic load, resulting from additional external stressors such as academic preparation or relationship disputes.

- These metabolic costs inherently deprive the athlete of resources that could potentially be used towards the functional adaptation response, specifically the resources needed for protein synthesis for the desired training effect.

- To date, many coaches have employed several methods for monitoring the training process. Subjective assessments in various forms provide information to the coach about the athlete’s psycho-physiological state including mood, quality and quantity of sleep, soreness, stress levels, etc (64).

- Although it has been shown to be a reliable method for obtaining information, subjective questionnaires may be influenced by fear of retribution for poor responses.

- Various researchers have used biological markers such as cortisol, testosterone, and creatine kinase for assessment (69) (56), however these methods are invasive, time consuming, and are not descriptive of the athlete as a whole.

- Lastly, many coaches will employ a “watch and see method” by observing reactions to training and analyzing performance outcomes. This method presents problems as the observed variables only reflect external outcomes and negates the internal adaptation cost to achieve such outcomes.

- To properly guide the training process, a comprehensive examination of the athlete must be utilized.

- Additionally, this approach must be non-invasive, non-exhaustive, provide immediate information, and must be performed continuously to control the training process.

- Certain systems provide an assessment of the athlete’s cardiovascular and central nervous system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) and direct current (DC) potentials of the brain.

- Adding a stress to a stressed system will increase the allostatic cost of maintaining homeostasis and will ultimately lead to extended recovery periods.

- One can think of HRV outcomes as an indicator of the available resources for adaptation to occur (i.e., fuel tank), whereas the DC potential is an indicator of how powerful the engine (brain) is to regulate the adaptation processes.

- The use of AMS (Athlete Monitoring System) makes the training process fluid in the fact that training loads can be altered based upon the objective assessment of the adaptive capabilities of the athlete on a given day.

- Thus, the utilization of an AMS in combination with periodized training could be thought of as “fluid periodization”.

- By controlling the training process through objective integrative physiological measures, athletes will recover sufficiently from training stimuli before applying the next training stimulus, thus increasing performance outcomes.

- Additionally, the modified training volumes and intensities may increase performance outcomes while decreasing the physiological cost.

- The training process must remain fluid rather than fixed and utilize an AMS to provide objective measures of the physiological state so that strength professionals can alter external loads (resistance training and running loads) to match the adaptive capability of the athlete.

- The Omegawave technology and its concept of “readiness”, has impacted the understanding of the training response, specifically in regards to research in the area of human adaptation to the application of stress

- Since collegiate athletes are exposed to a multitude of environmental stressors such as school, work, relationships, etc., it is important to have objective measures of allostatic load.

- However, evidence to support the use of these measures to identify overreaching/overtraining in athletes has been contradictive and inconclusive (120). Discrepancy in literature can be attributed to several factors, however the most conspicuous factor can be attributed to the law of individual differences (86).

- External and internal loads must be properly balanced on an individual basis to ensure adaptive reactions occur and the use of AMS may offer objective measures of quantifying internal loads.

- Through the use of fluid periodization, controllable external loads (frequency, intensity, time, and type of resistance training) can be manipulated to achieve load balance.

- heart rate fluctuations are a consequence of the dynamic interaction between systems based upon the dominant metabolic need at the time.

- The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is predominately concerned with the regulation of bodily functions, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion, etc.

-  There are two divisions of the ANS, sympathetic and parasympathetic, both of which regulate heart rate.

- Sympathetic nerves are often associated with the “flight or fight” response, in which the heart rate speeds up and vasoconstriction ensues.

- Parasympathetic nerves represent the “rest and digest” statement and help to slow down heart rate.

- the status of the ANS and its reflection on heart rate serve as an indicator of the physiological stress on the system.

- Russian scientists view the cardiovascular system as an indicator of the adaptation reactions of the whole body (11).

- The activation of the pituitary-adrenal system in response to a non-specific stressor, and the reaction of the sympathoadrenal system is marked by sympathetic innervation of the heart.

- The magnitude of innervation is indicative of tension within the regulatory systems and is an essential response to ensure adaptive processes are activated.

- Healthy subjects, with sufficient functional reserves, will respond to a stressor within the standard range of regulatory system tension.

- However, when exposure of the stressor is prolonged, adaptation reserves are depleted, and the state of exhaustion is developed. This is concurrent with Selye’s general adaptation theory and its role in pathological states.

- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluid periodization models on athletic performance outcomes in D-1 American football players.

- Models were dictated by the assessment of the athlete’s functional state as indicated by the Omegawave readiness output

- The treatment group adhered to a fluid periodization model in which volume or intensities of exercise sessions were modified based upon Omegawave’s assessment of the athlete’s functional state.

- The control group was not assessed with the Omegawave AMS and adhered to a similar block periodization regimen as planned by the Strength and Conditioning Staff.

- Based on the HRV and DC potential assessment an overall athlete readiness classification was assigned. This classification is represented by three colors consistent with a hierarchal stop light interpretation approach.

- Athletes classified as green could participate in any activity without restriction.

- Athletes classified as yellow reflected one of the regulatory systems, HRV or DC Potential, was operating at a reduced level.

- Athletes classified as red would seek active rest or medical attention.

- Changes made to an individual’s workouts were recorded so volumes of workloads could be adjusted accordingly.

- Significant improvements were found in the treatment group for vertical jump, vertical power, broad jump, and aerobic efficiency.

- These performance outcomes occurred with a concurrent reduction in resistance training volume (p < .01).

- There were no significant differences found between groups for anthropometric measures, running volumes, triple broad jump, or overhead throw.

- To our knowledge this study is the first of its kind to use physiological feedback to assess the functional state of strength and power athletes and to make subsequent changes to the daily prescribed exercise volumes and intensities.

- HRV guided training may facilitate enhanced performance outcomes at a reduced volume of work.

- The key to these studies and even the present study is that an auto-regulatory element exists in which training is altered based upon some physiological or psychological assessment of the athlete.

- The premise of periodization is based on the assumption that the rate of compensation and supercompensation is universal among athletes, however it has been established that genetic differences account for up to 50% of performance variance (68), thus the rate at which supercompensation occurs can vary significantly between athlete subject pools.

- Additionally, it has been shown that environmental stressors such as lack of sleep, academic stress, social stress, etc. will significantly affect performance outcomes (111, 147).

- Fluid periodization and auto-regulatory progressive resistance exercise may provide the necessary insight to account for genetic variance and environmental stressors.

- Many studies have employed the use of the RESTQ in a variety of athletic populations (82) (37). Jurimae et al. (81) studied the effect of increasing training loads on markers of psychological and physical stress in competitive rowers (82). Significant relationships were observed between training volume and fatigue scores (r=0.49), sleep quality (r=0.58), and somatic complaints (r=0.50). Additionally, relationships were observed between cortisol and fatigue (r=0.48). These relationships are often paralleled with over-reaching and overtraining states, which have been shown to produce stale or under-performance results in athletes (123) .

- Additionally, strong relationships between cortisol and decreased HRV have been reported in overreached and overtrained subjects (62) which validates the use of HRV in the present study.

- Decrements in physical performance were often observed in subjects who reported increased feelings of fatigue, energy, and general stress and were associated with the accumulation of creatine kinase, cortisol, and catecholamine levels.

- Training without proper monitoring techniques could explain why the control group significantly underperformed compared to the experimental group as testing sessions occurred following an intensive 8 week training program.

- Many will argue that Selye’s work is not relevant to normal training stimuli, however his work illustrates that every organism has a certain threshold for adaptation or resistance to work loads and once that threshold has been violated then decompensation or overtraining can occur.

- From Selye’s work we can assume that every organism has a certain level of adaptation energy or reserves and that adaptation to non-specific stress will occur as long as resources are available.

- On any given day a student athlete’s allostatic load can vary depending on several factors such as exams, homework, relationship tension, or social media pressure.

- Thus, if an athlete has experienced a significant allostatic load prior to a training stimulus, their resources for adaption may be significantly reduced depending on the magnitude of the incurred stress.

- Having the resources available for adaptation are extremely important for longitudinal success

- The human organism is dynamic and should not be examined in a reductionist manner, however it should be viewed as a holistic integrated unit.

- The DC potential is the first method in which the integrative activity of the organism can be evaluated. The use of it in this study may have played a significant role in the success of the treatment group.

- each individual is their own genetic anomaly which responds and adapts to environmental stressors in a unique and unpredictable manner.

Fluid periodization is meant to account for said environmental factors and allows internal and external loads to accommodate each other, thus ensuring optimal adaptation.

- The present study highlights that volume and intensity may not be the ultimate factor when designing periodized programs, yet signifies that the importance of the timing in which the appropriate training stimulus is applied.

Taken by Matt Gebert

Saturday Dec 19, 2015

New Release - Triphasic Training Football Speed and Strength E-Manual

Triphasic Training Football Speed and Strength E-Manual

The Triphasic training for Football manual is the most advanced and complete method of training for football on the market today.  In the trial phase of the program, with two high school teams and the non-multi sport athletes, the 40’s improved by an average of .32 electronic time. The vertical jump improved by 6 inches average and our bench press average improvement was 30 plus lbs. the best result increase in VJ was 9 inches, the 40 yard was .67, the bench press was 70 pounds.

Monday Nov 09, 2015

Notes from Science of Speed with Matt Jordan

Other ways besides maximum lifting

·         If you don’t have an athlete that doesn’t respond to maximal lifting then find a new way.

·         You cannot blanket the athlete into the same category as the others. Make training individual.

·         He uses EMG and measures dynamic lifting and compares it to maximal strength training. (He compares the two stimuli)

·         There is a potent neuromuscular response to lifting moderate weight explosively.

·         If an athlete is later in their career (like 10 to 15 years in) how do you get them through the wear and tear injuries they have had over their career. (Compare and contrast heavy lifting for your athlete)

·         David Dame is a researcher from Canada. He put out an article on rate of internal rate of force development vs external speed of movement.  Results showed that when you are lifting a heavy weight and moving it slow if you internally looked at the contractile of the muscle you would be having high rates of force development.  You will be getting the high threshold of motor units recruited and have a high level of internal rate of force development. You will be able to tap into the high motor neuron drive to the muscle. It is definitely beneficial to a speed athlete.

·         Following a block of heavy resistance training you have a shift in the type IIx fibers to type IIa fibers. You are essential lifting the fastest fast twitch to more of an oxidative fiber. What is the potential down side of that for a speed athlete? No real research on this yet out there but if an athlete gets stronger they get faster.

Talking on Zatsiorsky book Science and Practice

·         Two ways to go about increase the maximum strength or increase the rate of force development. –

·         Athletics are done in the 100 ms range for how quickly things happen. It’s not about how much force you can produce it’s about how quickly can you produce force and how much force can you produce given the time frames that occur in your sport.

Dynamic method

·         Zatsiorsky said in the book, dynamic method using lower and middle intensities at maximum speed is good for rate of force development. This is hard to measure so there is not a lot of studies on this.  First 50 to 100 ms is governed by the rate at which motor unit’s fire.

·         This is also heavily dependent on the contractile properties of that muscle and type of fibers you have. When you get into late phases of a contraction then you are looking at rate of force development of 200 ms and this is seen in measures like maximum strength. So you can further break down rate of force development into time intervals.

·         What Zatsiorsky was referring to was if you are training dynamically you are working more on the firing rate which is really critical for producing force quickly. (Neural adaptation to it)


·         Contractile impulse is related to your momentum. Momentum is related to your mass that you are moving x velocity. If you have a big rate of force development (Or contractile impulse) that quantifies what your limb will be doing in a sporting movement and end velocity that you are trying to reach.

Practical Part-

·         Spend doing time doing your sport. This is practiced all the time in track because they are always doing their sport. Where he sees this break down is in hockey. The athletes/coaches have them practicing acceleration in dryland. It doesn’t have the same transfer as doing your acceleration work on the ice.

·         Heavy lifting is the best way to increase tendon cross sectional area. A thicker tendon will be able to handle more strain. This will also help you handle more training.

·         Multifaceted strength training approach is the best way to develop your athlete. (Blend of maximal strength and dynamic strength)

·         Matt Jordan spends time in the 60% and below range or at the 85%. He does not spend time mainly in the middle range between the two because the load is not enough to get the adaptation of max strength. The speed is too low in the middle area to elicit the adaptation you need.

·         Middle zone is more for muscle hypertrophy.

Matt uses Isometric training for the following reasons

·         When he sees angle specific weakness and training torque angle specific.  Great thing for hockey because of the joint angle when skating.

Eccentric Training Adaptations

·         Get more sarcomeres

·         You can make a muscle fiber longer which then increases the velocity of shortening and also increase the range over which the muscle can produce forces

Sunday Oct 18, 2015

Supramaximal Isometric Training

Following the methods of Triphasic Training and the goal of applying maximal stress on specific adaptations from training, the three phases that occur in every dynamic contraction, eccentric, isometric, and concentric, are trained on an individual basis. A previous article “Supramaximal Slow Eccentrics and the Safety Bar Split Squat” explained the training ideologies, reasoning, and implementation of supramaximal training in the eccentric phase. As laid out in the previous article, the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), which is utilized in every dynamic movement and consists of the eccentric, isometric, and concentric phases, is one of the most important aspects of training and is the focal point of Triphasic Training. Once the eccentric phase of contraction has been improved through specific, supramaximal training, the isometric training phase is implemented to continue the optimization of the power and efficiency of the SSC.

The isometric phase of movement is absolutely critical for the optimal transition between the lengthening and shortening of a muscle in contraction. Without the training of this phase specific to movement requirements, every athlete will lose potential free-energy from the SSC in each completed action in training and competition. This reduced free-energy leads to inefficient movement and reduced power production.

If the “V” shape, used in the previous article and shown again below in Figure 1, is readdressed, the eccentric and concentric muscle actions of dynamic movement become clear, while the isometric action is commonly overlooked as it is not clearly portrayed within the “V”. The isometric phase occurs in the brief amount of time as the muscle shifts from the eccentric to the concentric action. Amortization is another term that has been used for the isometric phase of dynamic movement.

A knowledgeable coach, one who has utilized the supramaximal eccentric training outlined in the previous article, understands the eccentric portion of the “V” now has the ability to occur at a steeper slope due to the increased ability of the body to absorb high forces. This enhanced capability of the muscle and tendon components of the body to absorb force leads to a greater potential ability to store free-energy within the elastic components of the musculo-tendon structure. However, unless the isometric phase of contraction is trained appropriately, this enhanced ability of these elastic components to produce force in the concentric manner will be diminished. As the isometric phase becomes trained, the amount of free-energy that can be transferred from the eccentric to the isometric and finally through the concentric muscle action is improved. It is only through the specific training of each of these dynamic muscular contraction components that the efficiency of the body and power production can be truly optimized.

Bench Press Power

                                                                           Figure 1 – Force absorbing and producing capabilities

Specific, Supramaximal, Isometric Training:

Now that the importance of the isometric phase of dynamic muscular contraction is better understood, it is necessary to address the specifics of training this phase to the greatest extent. Figure 2 below depicts the force-velocity curve of a muscle depending on the specific phase the muscle is experiencing. In the previous article discussing supramaximal training it became clear that in order to truly improve the eccentric, force absorbing capabilities of the musclo-tendon structure, loads greater than the concentric 1RM of that movement must be used. If lower loads are used the adaptations seen in this phase of movement will not occur to the greatest extent. The same principle applies to the training of the isometric phase. Although the isometric phase is weaker than the eccentric phase, it is still able to produce higher force values than concentric muscle actions. For this reason, supramaximal loads are continued to be used throughout the isometric training block in Triphasic Training. This training is completed specifically to maximize the ability of this brief, yet vital portion of dynamic movement and the SSC. Once again it should be noted this supramaximal eccentric training should be used only with highly advanced athletes and a spotter should be used on both sides of the bar at all times.

The “V” graphic in Figure 1 has already been referred to in the previous section, but its importance to performance enhancement cannot be overemphasized. If the isometric phase, which can be easily overlooked in training, is not maximally trained, an athlete will do a poor job of transferring the energy stored from the eccentric phase into power; especially if the eccentric phase has been maximized as explained in the previous article. When the isometric phase is overlooked, the steep “V”, which is the goal, as increased force is produced in less time, may end up looking more like “\_/”. Clearly this second shape is less than ideal as it takes a greater amount of time to reach the concentric phase, thus less free-energy from the SSC is transferred and is lost.

Supramaximal isometric training continues to lead to high quality tissue adaptations to the muscle fibers being trained. As there is no muscle length change in isometric movements, velocity of contraction is zero and is not considered in training. This means the amount of time spent in the desired position and load used are the determining factors of adaptation in this training method. By training isometrically in a supramaximal fashion, greater tissue adaptation is realized within the muscle. This adaptation occurs as muscle fibers are fired and re-fired throughout the duration of the repetition to the greatest extent with supramaximal loads, even though no movement is occurring. The adaptations occurring within the tissue through this training maximizes the free-energy that is transferred throughout every dynamic muscle contraction and the SSC.

As introduced above, with zero length change in the muscle during isometric muscle actions, the two primary factors in determining stress in this training method include the load utilized and the duration of each completed set. With loading parameters already being set according to the supramaximal training used in this muscle action phase training, only the time of each set remains as a parameter affecting this training. With the goal of training with high-quality at all times, sets are kept below ten seconds in the Triphasic Training Program. By keeping this time low and allowing brief rest between all movements energy utilization is reduced in training ultimately leading to mTOR, or muscle building abilities, being enhanced.

Adaptations outside of the musculo-tendon structure also occur within the supramaximal isometric training model. As with the supramaximal eccentric training, supramaximal isometric training leads to the greatest hormone response within the body due to training. This is due to the high stress levels applied in this training protocol. This increased hormonal response continues to enhance the adaptation processes occurring within the athlete. A second, more centralized, adaptation that has been seen due to this training model is improved efficiency within the cardiac output system. This could be due to multiple factors in this training program, but it is believed to be due to the high pressures placed on the cardiac system that lead to this improved efficiency.

Figure 2 below solidifies the training mechanisms used within the Triphasic Training System to specifically train the isometric phase of any muscle action. In order to train the isometric muscle action phase to the fullest extent, which is the main purpose of this method, loads must be high enough to stress the isometric phase. It is with this idea in mind that supramaximal loads are continued through the isometric training block. Supramaximal loads must be used if the isometric muscle action phase is to be stressed and improved to the greatest extent, which must be the purpose of training in this block.

            Figure 2 – Force-velocity curve of a muscle

How to Apply Supramaximal Isometrics:

The same exercise used in supramaximal isometric training as was used in supramaximal eccentric training, the hands assisted, safety bar split squat. As described in the eccentric article, this training exercise has been found, at this time, to be the optimal movement to induce total body stress. By training this exercise in all three muscle action phases, efficiency and power outputs are increased in single leg movements. This leads to greater transfer of training to sport, which is the ultimate goal of all training. The hands assisted aspect gives a better support system and takes pressure off the back, which is usually the weak link in squatting exercises. The support of the arms also allows single leg training to be used without balance becoming an issue. Once again the goal of the program is to maximize stress on the body, the hands assisted, safety bar split squat allows for this and leads to the necessary adaptations for enhanced performance.

Supramaximal isometric exercises, such as the hands assisted, safety bar split squat described above should only be used in the first training block of the day. If supramaximal loads are used for more than one exercise, or too many sets with these high loads are completed, too much stress will be placed on the body, leading to performance decreases. Supramaximal isometric exercises can be used as potentiation exercises, just as the supramaximal eccentrics were in the previous phase. This potentiation leads to increased rate of force development during plyometric movements, such as the French Contrast Method. Supramaximal isometric training can be applied in any manner that you desire as a coach, you can even keep the exercises you are already using within your program.

Coaching Points:

The coaching point used for the hands assisted, safety bar split squat will be the same as in the supramaximal eccentric article, other than the exercise is now being completed strictly as an isometric exercise. Focus is still placed on the back, chest, and leg positioning. The back should be kept in a neutral, supported position with the chest up. The front leg position should be around 90-90, with the back leg at an angle slightly extended beyond 90 degrees, be sure the back leg does not become too extended, as it will begin to pull the athlete’s hips out of proper alignment. Another key coaching point in this movement is teaching athletes to push through their back leg and fire that corresponding glute. This leads to increased stabilization of the pelvis while also utilizing the correct kinetic sequencing for athletes. To begin the set, the athlete will move from the starting position into the bottom position in a controlled motion. Once the athlete has reached the bottom position, the timed set will begin and the athlete will hold the bottom position until the set is completed. The athlete is encouraged to begin every isometric lift with a belly breath and then hold their breath for the duration of the rep. This is believed to cause greater adaptations within the circulatory system, as discussed earlier, and will be covered thoroughly in a separate article. Just like the eccentric phase, spotters will be required as the supramaximal loads will be too heavy for the athlete to lift concentrically on their own. We suggest a spotter on each side of the bar for these supramaximal load movements. The athlete will continue to focus on exploding out of the bottom position concentrically when the set is completed, even though the load will be too heavy for the athlete to lift completely on their own.

The three phases of every dynamic muscular contraction must be trained individually based on both their physiological and force producing capability differences. Based on the differences shown in Figure 2 supramaximal training is necessary to train both the eccentric and isometric phases of contraction to the greatest extent. Isometric strength, when maximized, allows for the optimal free-energy stored throughout the eccentric phase of the SSC to be converted into power through the concentric phase, which is the ultimate goal for athletes. The stress imposed on the body using supramaximal loads during isometric contractions allows the maximization of this second phase of the SSC. Supramaximal isometric training will continue to strengthen the tissue, which was also done during the supramaximal eccentric phase of Triphasic Training. To this point the greatest adaptations have been seen using the hands assisted, safety bar split squat which maximizes stress on the body. This controlled stress leads to increased adaptations, and ultimately maximized performance. After the isometric phase of Triphasic Training has been utilized properly, an athlete is now prepared for the reactive phase of Triphasic Training. This final phase of Triphasic Training’s specific muscle action phase training will put all 3 components of the SSC together and the free-energy transfer through the SSC will be maximized to steepen the “V” even further. This steepening of the “V” will continuously lead to a more explosive and efficient athlete.